智多星欢迎您!13年深圳翻译公司

如何理解新时代的翻译家需要“升级”

日期:2019-06-24 | 来源:智多星 | 阅读:

International cultural exchange, translation is indispensable, but the new era has new requirements for translation. This is the translator's efforts to become an upgraded translator, or translator 2.0. Why upgrade? Because translation is now under pressure from three aspects, let alone not be a challenge, just stress.

Let me talk about the first pressure, which is the change in market demand. Translation is for others to use, and its results must be accepted by the audience through communication, and the value of translation can be realized. As a result, translation results have entered the field of communication, and its attributes and rules have changed. In the academic field, translation results are works and re-creation of thinking. However, in the field of communication, it has the attributes of commodities, and it must follow the rules of the market, that is, to maximize the effect of communication. In layman's terms, I hope to sell more and sell faster. In order to achieve this goal, there are now three stylish translation models on the market.

One is fast food translation. In the information age, some people only require quick communication of information, rather than the strict correspondence of words. Nowadays, many translation companies in various places are customers of fast food translation. The second is network crowdsourcing. Translation used to be an individual's independent thinking labor. A book is translated by itself, often in a year or a few years. Now relying on the network, the implementation of crowd-based flow of water, online called crowdsourcing translation. A work, online collection of translators, after selection, each division of labor translation, and finally unified finalization. Its quality is naturally difficult to guarantee, but it wins quickly, and the market first seizes the market. Its advantages and disadvantages are judged by others, anyway, this is the market reality. The third is to change the translation. This is mainly a phenomenon that appears in "Chinese translation". Many of Mo Yan's works have been translated into foreign languages. Its English translation translator is a famous American sinologist Ge Haowen and his wife. In order to let American readers better understand Mo Yan's works, Ge Haowen often changes some of Mo Yan's original works in translation. For example, "The Song of Paradise Garlic", the end of the English version, has been changed to the opposite of the original. Because Ge Haowen’s change was approved by Mo Yan, there is no legal problem, but there is controversy about how to deal with translation.

Let me say that the second pressure is the rapid development of digital technology. This does not require much explanation. As long as you know that a mobile phone equipped with a translation software now has instant translation functions in more than 40 different languages, even several Chinese dialects can be translated into English and people. With the development of digital technology, it takes less than a few years to use a mobile phone. If a button is attached to a clothes, it may be possible to have a smooth conversation with a foreigner. In short, in general social and non-professional texts, human translation will inevitably be replaced by artificial intelligence.

Finally, the third pressure is the change in the reader's reading style. Everything in today's society is fast. In the micro-era of prevailing WeChat, Weibo, and micro-video, many people read and often have the habit of pressing shortcut keys and swiping screens. When you encounter too long text, one page slides over and how many pages turn over. Like Proust and Austin, there are many people who are afraid of reading them. This brings a problem to the translator: whether or not the translation should be adjourned. It is difficult to have a correct answer to this question. I will only list a few cases for your own judgment.

For the public version of the book, the translator wants to abridge, there is no legal restriction, only academic and moral self-discipline. The Chinese translations of many famous scholars have been revised according to the translator's own aesthetic standards. For example, Zhu Shenghao translated the poems of the original Shakespeare Collection into a vernacular body. The translation of Fu Donghua's "Gone with the Wind" has also abridged some of the insignificant redundancy of the original work. The most typical one is the translation of Yang Lan's "Don Quixote", which is more than 70,000 words less than other people's translations. Some people accuse the former of being a section translation. For this matter, I specifically consulted Mr. Yang Wei. She replied that when Cervantes wrote this book, it was very popular in Spain to find celebrities to write poems for themselves. There were more than a dozen self-proclaimed poems in front of the original works. Many foreign translations were not translated, so she did not Translate, to avoid misunderstanding that Cervantes loves to brag. In addition, according to the method of the famous Tang dynasty Liu Zhiji on the words "a little annoyance", she also appropriated the "translation of Don Quixote", although the text was less, but the meaning did not decrease or change. Later, I asked Hu Zhencai, a Spanish editor of the People's Literature Publishing House. He compared different translations and thought that Yang Yu's translation had no change in meaning. For example, there is a saying that other translations use 14 words, and Yang Hao only used 8 words. Using the "point annoyance" method to deal with the Chinese translation, this is the choice of Yang Yu's translation view, people can have different evaluations. But I know that the translation of Yang Lan has won the medal of the King of Spain. So far, it has sold more than 800,000 copies, which is the most popular among all the Chinese translations of Don Quixote. These two achievements are enough to show that Yang Hao’s translation of Don Quixote was successful.

As for the non-public version of the book, it is much more complicated to abridge it. I also cited cases of deleting and not deleting two different results. In the 1990s, a Beijing publishing house published the memoirs of the Chinese-born and famous pianist Zhou Qinli, "The Flower Carriage Tears", which was translated into a dozen words. The author was a daughter-in-law who was hired by Shanghai's big capitalist, and the Chinese translator was the Korean editor of Yilin. Because there was a piece of sexually assaulted text in the book that was not deleted, Zhou’s two relatives in the United States and Brazil believed that the book violated Zhou’s reputation. Because the author is in France, it is not easy to tell, and he went to Nanjing to sue the translator Han editor. The author stated in the preface that he would like to thank the translator for his faithful translation. The court commissioned a French professor at Nanjing University to review it, and also believed that the Korean editor's translation was correct. It is reasonable to say that the translator is not at fault, but the Jiangsu High Court final trial translator Han editor lost the case and fined 10,000 yuan. The reason for losing the case is that this is a Chinese translation, and Chinese readers will think that this is something that is not glamorous in Shanghai. The translator did not foresee that his translation would harm Zhou’s reputation and must be liable for fault. In this judgment, the translation community has dissent, and Mr. Ji Xianlin even said that it is "absurd." However, the existing regulations do not have clear provisions on the translator's responsibility. The judgment of the Jiangsu Higher People's Court is likely to become a reference precedent for judging such cases in the future. This is a disaster that does not abridge.

In summary, these three aspects of pressure have raised new issues for traditional translators. How to deal with them? According to the author's ignorance, it is to be tolerant, upgrade, and stick to it.

The so-called inclusiveness is based on the traditional translation. It must adopt an attitude of tolerance and guidance to the market's needs and non-standard translation models that are not prohibited by law, such as fast food translation and crowdsourcing translation. There are many different needs in the market. Elites and grassroots have their own needs. He does what he does. You do what you should do. As long as you don't break the law, you will do everything.

This article focuses on upgrading. Traditional translators, including foreign language workers, must pay close attention to how the new era will be upgraded.

First of all, the concept of translation should be changed. Foreign languages are not as mysterious as they used to be. There are more and more people who know foreign languages, especially English. The foreign language is not a minority. I only heard that writing is not enough. It must be understood that the new era understands foreign languages, but only masters a kind of "tools" to explore and study the civilization innovation in the cross-cultural era. Because most of the graduates of various majors in the university have mastered English, the enthusiasm of the candidates for pure English majors has declined. This may be a sign of omen.

Second, we must face new service targets. Mr. Yang Wei once said that translation is like "one servant and two masters." To say that the translator is a servant, to serve the author and the reader. This metaphor is very vivid and classic. But now the situation has changed. In my opinion, we must become "one servant and three masters." In addition to the author and the reader, the owner also adds a publisher. In the market economy, this third master is amazing! It can decide that a book can't be produced, how can it come out, and if the translator doesn't listen to him, the book can't be published. When Mr. Ge Haowen made a report at Shanghai University of Foreign Studies at the end of September, he said frankly that he translated Chinese works, but he did not see which writers had a good reputation. Instead, he first gave the works to the influential literary agents in the United States for review, recommended by literary agents. After the publisher accepted the publication, the couple started to translate. This is also true for the introduction version. It is also possible for the translator to engage in translation after the publisher has approved it or if they have purchased the copyright.

Be more cautious about re-translation. Because the low-end translation may be replaced by fast food translation or artificial intelligence, when it is the turn to need manual translation, most of them are high-end, complex, precise or artistically demanding. This requires the translator to have a high sense of responsibility, to play the translator's subjective and more thoughtful judgment and more flexible initiative. Such as selecting authors, selecting works, communicating with three “masters”, whether or not to abridge, how to find the best balance between the principle of translation and market demand, and how to use digital new technology for me, etc. It is necessary for translators to make reasonable and legitimate judgments and give full play to and play the positive role of "servants" in the whole process of translation. All of this is a requirement for upgrading.

Finally, we must emphasize that while inclusive and upgrading, we must also keep in mind. Emphasis on persistence means that you cannot give up the professional bottom line of the translation career. Translation studies is a science that serves to promote world exchanges and international cultural exchanges. Since the choice of translation career, we must firmly be a bridgeman of Chinese and foreign cultures and a messenger of the spread of world civilization. We must adhere to the purpose and belief of translation studies, abide by the professional ethics of translation, and bear in mind that the translator's surname is "text" and not surnamed "money." The impure upgrade is the means to get rich, but to adapt to the new era, enrich your knowledge, let your wisdom be more free, and try your best to make a due contribution to Babel.


—— 微信公众号 ——

热门标签