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如何更好更精准的科技翻译?

日期:2019-06-24 | 来源:智多星 | 阅读:

Traditionally, translation has a close relationship with literature. Speaking of translation, many people first think of "writing is better." In recent years, with the development of information exchange, the translation of practical texts, especially scientific literature, has become more and more important. Many practitioners in the field of science and technology are also interested or motivated to translate scientific literature, and have achieved a lot of results. One of the outstanding achievements is The quality of translation of IT books has been greatly improved. Many of the heroes behind this are the "translators" of the IT industry.

Science and technology translation is greatly prosperous, and there is no corresponding progress in the science and technology translation itself. Various translation tutorials and experience summaries still focus on general translation or literary translation. However, those who have a deep understanding of translation know that translations in different styles and fields have their own characteristics, and they cannot ignore the original text and pursue "faith, elegance, and achievement." For example, news translation pursues simplicity, accuracy, and eye-catching, and literary translation emphasizes completeness, fluency, and artistic conception. This kind of difference is implemented in the practice of translation, which produces a lot of attention, so the news can be translated like news, and the novel can be translated like a novel. By the same token, scientific translation can't completely copy the practice of ordinary translation. To do it well, you must understand its own characteristics. According to my summary, the scientific translation has the following characteristics.

First, the scientific literature is usually used to make sense, so the translator must accurately understand the truth of the expression.

The "reasoning theory" mentioned here is not a narrow sense of "reasoning", but includes explanation principles, research argumentation, experimental analysis, etc. In other words, the content of scientific literature is an objective reality that can be analyzed rationally, so the reader's understanding should also Can be measured objectively. Literary and art works do not have this feature. They often say that "there are thousands of readers who have one thousand Hamlets." "A thousand readers can only have one Hamlet." Therefore, the translator of the scientific literature must not only understand the original text, but also must accurately understand the original text. In the past, there were several publishing companies whose IT translation books were so painful that everyone was not because the translator’s text level was not good enough, but because the translator did not understand or understand what the author was saying. Such a translation will be scorned by readers.

Science and technology have objective criteria to follow, so the meaning of scientific literature is easier to understand than literary works, because translators do not have to be rigid in the original text. Suppose the original text first talks about the two algorithms of A and B, and then draws the conclusion of the comparison, but only says "one algorithm is several times better than the other." From the point of view of text, it is difficult to know which is good and which is not good, but this problem is difficult for translators of scientific translation, because he can practice programming by himself. Be aware that logic and procedures will never vary from person to person. By extension, the translator can independently verify that his understanding is accurate, and the accuracy of understanding is precisely the prerequisite for the translation to pass.


Second, translators of scientific translations can change the original text appropriately.

As mentioned above, a major feature of the scientific literature is that its content has objective criteria to follow, so translators can use the "outside the text" information to verify their understanding. This can be considered a unique advantage of scientific translation, and this advantage is quite valuable. Because the authors of scientific literature are often not specialized writers, they cannot be expected to have a high level of writing. Some fragments may be difficult to understand, or the original author is not considered for the target reader (in fact, this situation is quite common). ), using some allusions and proverbs that are specific to certain cultures.

If it is a literary translation, it will be very troublesome to encounter such a problem, and it is impossible to understand what the original author means. There is no such problem in scientific translation. Once the translator confirms that he understands the content and logic of the original text, he can boldly change the fragments that are difficult for the target reader to understand, and prevent the target reader from wasting energy on the same problem.

I have seen in the technical article that the author's difficulty in evaluating a certain practice is "the same as saving leprosy patients." According to the context of the guess, here is probably said that the difficulty is not small, but it must be understood that it is difficult to understand, because leprosy seems to be rare, and it is rare to hear that treatment is very troublesome, so I dare not confirm . The translator is still the same, and readers who do not see the original text are more difficult to confirm.

So I went to check the information. The author here refers to the long-term hard work of NGOs, charities, public relations companies and health departments in Sri Lanka to save leprosy patients. The meaning is of course difficult. So the final translation is "as hard as saving leprosy patients", so that readers will not be misunderstood.

To give another example, there is a translation about how to use regular expressions to match independent words.

So, if inline appeared in the sentence, the regular expression will match not in but inline

In this way, if inline appears in the sentence, the expression matches inline instead of in

This translation is not appropriate. English itself is based on words, so of course, when reading the original text, the inline and in are all referring to the "word" inline, in, not the "string" inline, in. However, there is no formal separation between Chinese vocabulary, so the reader may interpret "this sentence contains inline" as "this sentence contains the string inline". If the translator boldly adds the word "word", the following is avoided:

In this way, if the word inline appears in the sentence, the expression will match the word inline, and will not match the in

The above two changes are from the translator's hand, the purpose is to ensure the reader's correct understanding, to ensure that "a thousand readers only have a Hamlet", and the translator has enough to do so. Of course, if the translator feels that he should try to avoid changing the original text, he can also keep the original text, supplemented by comments. This is quite simple - publishing software that requires users to patch itself, and releasing officially patched software, obviously Everyone likes the latter.



Third, when there is a conflict between "shun" and "trust", the choice of scientific translation is not smooth.

The choice of "shun" and "trust" is a matter of great concern to the older generation of translators. The so-called shun refers to the fluency and smoothness of the words. The so-called letter refers to the form of accuracy and loyalty to the original text. Because of different language habits, different cultures, etc., it is often the case that it is difficult to "form both form and spirit" when translating. If the translation is fluent, it may be necessary to make major changes to the original text; try not to change the original text, and the article cannot be smooth. Different styles have different treatments for this problem.

Between "letter" and "shun", literary translation is more "shun", such as

The night breeze came with pleasant guitar

The original meaning is "the evening wind and the nice guitar are coming together", but this expression is very awkward, so it can be changed to "the evening wind sent a wonderful guitar", which is to take "shun" and abandon the "letter." But if the data come with noise appears in the technical article, the translation is "data sent noise" is a serious mistake, can only be translated as "data is mixed with noise", this is taken "letter" and abandoned Shun". Although it seems straightforward and straightforward, many technical documents are straightforward and straightforward. When you translate, you simply pursue the “shun” of the translation. Not only does it lose the accurate letter that the scientific articles value, even from the translation itself, there are also smears and smudges. Suspect.

It should be added that the "trust" and "shun" abandonment must be carried out under the premise that "Xinheshun can't be reconciled". "Nothing is not good" is by no means an excuse for not being able to translate. Even Lu Xun, who insisted on the letter, said: If the letter is not smooth, it is not to abandon "the sire" and keep "standing with the knee", not to abandon the "Galaxy" and retain the "milk road", not to abandon the "starting publication" "And retaining the "release of the first phase", is not to abandon the "bazooka" and retain the "rocket-propelled grenade launcher." In fact, a large number of scientific and technical articles are very straightforward and straightforward. The requirements of the translation for the target readers should not be higher than the requirements of the original text readers. In particular, the requirements for the readers' ability to understand the characters should not be raised artificially.



Fourth, when translating science and technology, translators should have an understanding of the professional field of translation.

The most obvious example of this is about weapons. As we all know, the "gun" and "cannon" in English can use gun, such as machine gun is machine gun, cannon is cannon gun. Simply put, there are many kinds of guns in English, "gun" and "cannon" are one of them. However, in Chinese, the definitions of "gun" and "cannon" are distinct: a "gun" with a diameter of 20 mm or less and a "cannon" with a diameter of 20 mm or more. So normally, what you see should be a 7.62mm rifle, a 12.7mm machine gun, a 20mm cannon, a 75mm howitzer, and so on.

Probably a lot of translators don't have this background knowledge, so they often make mistakes when translating. British and American households generally use imperial units instead of metric units, so the calibre description generally uses .30 or .50. Among them, .30 corresponds to "0.30 inch" which is 7.62 mm, and .50 corresponds to "0.50 inch" which is 12.7 mm. However, in the case of relevant translations, the words "30mm rifle" and "50mm machine gun" often appear.

If you are not familiar with the .30 or .50 units, it is understandable to mix inches and millimeters, but the "30mm rifle" and "50mm machine guns" fully demonstrate the translator's lack of knowledge of the professional field. Even if you don't know that the caliber of more than 20mm should be called "cannon", it is inferred from common sense that the bullet is generally the thickness of the index finger. The 30mm caliber has two or three fingers thick. The adult can only hold one shot with one hand. Can the rifle fire this kind of ammunition? How big is the magazine? How many ammunition can ordinary soldiers carry? It is not difficult to find the problems by relying on common sense.

Don't think that the words in the military field are very partial and generally not encountered. In fact, if you pay attention to the translations and reports around you, you will find that such mistakes abound.

After the outbreak of the New Zealand gunmen incident in the past few days, many reports mentioned that "a lot of magazines were tied to the gunmen's legs." The gunman is going to be a murderer, the magazine can't be bulletproof, and it can only make the action more clumsy. Why is this? It turns out that the translator lacks military knowledge, only knows that magazine is a "magazine", but does not know that it also means "imposing".


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