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影响翻译质量主要有哪些因素?

日期:2019-06-20 | 来源:智多星 | 阅读:

The quality of translation is whether it can satisfy the requirements specified by customers or objectively contained in their use requirements. The most important factor in the process of translation is the purpose of the whole translation action, that is, the quality of translation depends on the purpose of translation.


What factors will change the quality of translation, good or bad? What are the potential factors affecting translation quality?


I. Textual factors


1. Obstacles to Semantic Understanding:


In the stage of reading and analyzing the original text, the semantic ambiguity and syntactic complexity of the original text are the most important factors affecting the degree of equivalence. Because of the intentional or unconscious semantic ambiguity of the original text, it is difficult for the translator to determine the true meaning of the original text. Different people have different understandings, so different translations are produced.


Native speakers of Chinese often like to express indirectly or circuitously their views on a boy or girl's appearance, and then say "she is difficult to grow" - which can not help but bring a "awkward" feeling to the translator. If literally translated as "She grows difficult." foreigners may be puzzled; if freely translated as "She looks ugly." the original text loses its wit.


To overcome semantic ambiguity and convey the original semantics accurately, translators are required to have a high grasp of the source language, take all the factors related to the original semantics into consideration as far as possible, and excavate the true connotation of the original text. Even so, it is difficult to achieve absolute "equivalence".


The complexity of the original sentence is also a thorny problem for the translator. Before translation, the translator has to reorganize the complex syntax, that is, to translate it into the target language first and then into the target language, which also affects the equivalence to a certain extent.


2. Different ways of expression:


After analyzing the source text, translators also encounter many factors affecting equivalence, mostly related to the way of expression and style.


In the same syntactic unit of the original text, the translation usually has several expressions with different equivalence (except for fixed usage). To some extent, the choice of expression determines the degree of equivalence of the translation.


Our principle of choice is to choose the most natural equivalents, that is, to adopt the expressions that are most in line with the conventions and collocations of idioms in the target language.


3. Different grammatical structures:


As Mona Baker said, different languages have different grammatical categories, rules and structures, which lead to different ways of conveying information.


If the target language lacks some grammatical category or structure of the source language, it is difficult to find a direct equivalent in the target text, and the translator has to add or delete the information of the source text and make some trade-offs. Among the grammatical categories that influence translation, Mona Baker emphasizes numeral, gender, tense and style, voice and person.


Therefore, the grammatical differences between different languages are also an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. The greater the difference in grammar, the more difficult it is to achieve equivalence.


For example, there are many single-word sentences or sentences without subject in Chinese. When translating it into English, it is necessary to add grammatical or logical language, which can not achieve the translation of "equivalence". "Snake!" As a sentence expressing surprise, it takes more than three English words to translate it. [It's a snake!] "C1 = E3" how equivalent?


4. The genre of the article:


Genre is a very important factor affecting translation equivalence. Different genres have different functions, such as expressive function, informative function or vocative function, which can not be ignored in translation. One of the four principles Nida put forward when discussing "dynamic equivalence" is that the literary genre of the original text plays the same role.


For example, if the original genre has the cognitive function, the translation must also have this function. The linguistic function of the original text is the aesthetic function, and the translation must also realize the aesthetic function.


Poetry is generally regarded as the most difficult literary genre to achieve equivalence or even untranslatability, not only because of its characteristics in characters, phonology and metaphor, but also because of its charm, artistic conception or taste, that is, what makes poetry poetry impossible for ordinary people to reach.


Different genres of articles should have different equivalence criteria, and even each article should have its own equivalence criteria.


2. Cultural factors


Different nationalities have different historical backgrounds, modes of thinking and social customs, thus forming their own unique cultural background, these cultural differences will be carried in their different languages. Correct understanding of the cultural connotations of the source text and analysis of cultural differences between the source language and the target language are prerequisites for equivalence translation.


Generally speaking, the greater the difference between the two languages and cultures, the more difficult the equivalence conversion between the two languages will be, and the more the degree of equivalence will be affected.


Only when we fully consider this cultural difference in translation and try to express the cultural information and connotation of the source language in a way consistent with the cultural habits of the target language, can we achieve a higher degree of equivalence.


For example, Chinese people are accustomed to saying "the moon of the 15th Five-Year Plan", which is related to the Chinese calendar (lunar/lunar calendar) reflecting the law of the moon's circle and absence, but Westerners use the solar calendar. They may not know much about Chinese calendar or cultural customs, so the translation of "the fifteenth moon" is not equivalent to "the full moon".


3. Translator factors


Translation is also inseparable from human activities, and the results are still very good.


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